Windows Server

Get the error “0xc000000f” when trying to capture image via WDS .

WIndows failed to start. A recently hardware or software change might be cause. TO fix a problem:



File: \windows\system32\winload.exe

Status: 0xc000000f

Info: The application or operating system couldn't be loaded because a required file is missing or contains error


Why this happen - If you try to create a image of working windows with system, Then The problem may be happen, due to - 1) Unable to read winload.exe,

2) Not be find the winload.exe on directories - %systemDrive%\Windows\System32\boot\winload.exe.

3) May corrupt your winload.exe file.

Solved -

Method 1 - Try to add a fresh boot image (boot.wim) to WDS and create a capture image from that. Then boot from this capture image.

If problem is still there, Then Go to Method 2

Method 2- Mount the capture.wim file using dism.

Step 1 - Log on to WDS server and create a temp directory for mounting the image, Here i am createing “C:\TempMount\

Step 2 - Run command prompt as a administrator rights by right click on cmd.exe and click run as administrator.

Step 3 - To mount the capture boot image file type this command - dism /mount-wim /wimfile:"Path to capturebootimage file" /mountdir:"C:\TempMount\" /index:1

Example - dism /mount-wim /wimfile:E:\RemoteInstall\Boot\x64\Images\WinCapture.wim /mountdir:C:\TempMount /index:1

Step 4 - Unmount by type this command - dism /unmount-wim /mountdir:C:\TempMount /commit

Step 5 - Restart WDS service, Now you will see your problem has gone.

Command prompt example -

C:\>dism /mount-wim /wimfile:E:\RemoteInstall\Boot\x64\Images\WinCapture.wim /mountdir:C:\TempMount /index:1

Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool Version: 6.3.9600.17031 Mounting image [==========================100.0%==========================] The operation completed successfully.

C:\>dism /unmount-wim /mountdir:C:\TempMount /commit

Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool Version: 6.3.9600.17031 Image File : E:\RemoteInstall\Boot\x64\Images\WinCapture.wim Image Index : 1 Saving image [==========================100.0%==========================] Unmounting image [==========================100.0%==========================] The operation completed successfully.

What is Internet Protocol | IPv4 and IPv6 | How to Work Internet Protocol, What is the role in Internet

Short for Internet Protocol, IP is an address of a computer or other network device on a network using IP or TCP/IP. For example, the number "" is an example of such an address. These addresses are similar to an addresses used on a house and is what allows data to reach the appropriate destination on a network. 

There are five classes of available IP ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E, while only A, B and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a range of valid IP addresses. Below is a listing of these address. Ranges 127.x.x.x are reserved for loopback or local host, for example, is the common loopback address. Range broadcasts to all hosts on the local network.


IP address breakdown
Every IP address is broke down into four sets of octets that break down into binary to represent the actual IP address. The below chart is an example of the IP If you are new to binary, we highly recommend reading our binary and hexadecimal conversions section to get a better understanding of what we're doing in the below charts.

Binary value: 
Octet value:





255 255
11111111 11111111
8 8

If we were to break down the IP "", you would get the below value. The below fist row is the IP address, the second row the binary values, and the third row the binary value calculated to equal the total of that section of the IP address.





Automatically assigned addresses

There are several IP addresses that are automatically assigned when you setup a home network. These default addresses are what allow your computer and other network devices to communicate and broadcast information over your network. Below is the most commonly assigned network addresses in a home network. - 254

0 is the automatically assigned network address.
1 is the commonly used address used as the gateway.
2 is also a commonly used address used for a gateway.
Addresses beyond 3 are assigned to computers and devices on the network.
255 is automatically assigned on most networks as the broadcast address.

Getting an IP address

By default the router you use will assign each of your computers their own IP address, often using NAT to forward the data coming from those computers to outside networks such as the Internet. If you need to register an IP address that can be seen on the Internet, you must register through InterNIC or use a web host that can assign you addresses.

Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server (ISA Server), now change to Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway (Forefront TMG). It is network security and protection solution for Microsoft Windows. ISA Server allows administrators to create policies for regulating usage based on user, group, application, destination, schedule, and content type criteria. ISA Server is designed to work with Windows Server operating systems and to take advantage of Windows' Kerberos security. ISA Server includes a software development kit (SDK).

Features Of latest Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway
  • Routing and remote access features: Microsoft Forefront TMG can act as a router, an Internet gateway, a virtual private network (VPN) server, a network address translation (NAT) server and a proxy server.
  • Security features: Microsoft Forefront TMG is a firewall which can inspect network traffic (including web contents, secure web contents and emails) and filters out malwares, attempts to exploit security vulnerabilities and content that does not match a predefined security policy. In technical sense, Microsoft Forefront TMG offers application layer protection, state full filtering, and content filtering and anti-malware protection.
  • Network performance features: Microsoft Forefront TMG can also improve network performance: It can compress web traffic to improve communication speed. It also offers web caching: It can cache frequently-accessed web contents so that users can access them faster from the local network cache. Microsoft Forefront TMG 2010 can also cache data received through Background Intelligent Transfer Service, such as updates of software published on Microsoft Update website.
Feature with Edition of ISA Server 2006
Standard Edition
Enterprise Edition
Unlimited Adds enterprise networks
Scale up
Up to 4 CPUs, 2-gigabyte (GB) RAM
Unlimited (per operating system)
Scale out
Single server
Up to 32 nodes through Network Load Balancing
Single-server store
Unlimited (through Cache Array Routing Protocol [CARP])
Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB) Support
Not supported
Yes (integrated)
Array and enterprise policies use Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)
Branch office
Through the manual import and export of policy
Enterprise-level and array-level policies
Single-server monitoring console
Microsoft Operations Manager  (MOM) Management Pack
Multi server monitoring console
MOM Management Pack
Multiple networks

Edition of ISA Server

Microsoft Proxy Server
Microsoft Proxy Server v1.0 was first launched in January 1997, and was designed to run on Windows NT 4.0. Microsoft Proxy Server v1.0 was a basic product designed to provide Internet Access for clients in a LAN Environment via TCP/IP. Microsoft Proxy Server v1.0 only had basic functionality, and came in only one edition. Extended support for Microsoft Proxy Server v1.0 ended on 31 March 2002
ISA Server 2000
Microsoft launched Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000 (ISA Server 2000) on 18 March 2001. ISA Server 2000 introduced the Standard and Enterprise editions. ISA Server 2000 required Windows 2000 (any edition), and will also run on Windows Server 2003. ISA Server 2000 reached End of Life on the 12 April 2011.
ISA Server 2004
(ISA Server 2004) was released on the 8 September 2004. ISA Server 2004 introduced multi-networking support, integrated virtual private networking configuration, extensible user and authentication models, application layer firewall support, Active Directory integration, Secure NAT, and improved reporting and management features. The rules based configuration was also considerably simplified over ISA Server 2000 version. ISA Server 2004 Enterprise Edition included array support, integrated Network Load Balancing (NLB), and Cache Array Routing Protocol (CARP). One of the core capabilities of ISA Server 2004. Some organizations use ISA Server 2004 to publish their Microsoft Exchange Server services such as Outlook Web Access (OWA), Outlook Mobile Access (OMA) or ActiveSync. ISA Server 2004 is available in two editions, Standard and Enterprise. Enterprise Edition contains features enabling policies to be configured on an array level, rather than on individual ISA Servers, and load-balancing across multiple ISA Servers.
ISA Server 2004 runs on Windows Server 2003 Standard or Enterprise Edition.
ISA Server 2006
Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2006 were released on 17 October 2006. It is an updated version of ISA Server 2004, and retains all features from ISA Server 2004 except Message Screener.
ISA Server Appliance Edition
Microsoft also offers ISA Server 2006 Appliance Edition, software designed to be pre-installed onto an OEM hardware that is sold by the hardware manufacturer as a stand-alone firewall type device.
Microsoft Forefront TMG MBE
Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway Medium Business Edition (Forefront TMG MBE) is the next version of ISA Server which is also included with Windows Essential Business Server. This version only runs on the 64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 and does not support Enterprise edition features such as array support or Enterprise policy.
Microsoft Forefront TMG 2010
Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010 (Forefront TMG 2010) was released on 17 November 2009. It is built on the foundation of ISA Server 2006 and provides enhanced web protection, native 64-bit support, and support for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, malware protection and BITS caching. Service Pack 1 for this product was released on 23 June 2010. It includes several new features to support Windows Server 2008 R2 and Microsoft SharePoint 2010 lines of products.

System State or AD Backup and Restore on Server 2008 by command Line


This article will help you to how to backup of active directory on windows server 2008 by using command line wbadmin because windows server 2008 not support system state or active directory backup by GUI. But yes if you have Windows Server 2008 R2 then you can do via GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Before backup of AD in server 2008 need to install the backup features from the Server Manager, for install backup features in server follow these step.

Enable Windows Server Backup features from Server Manager

Steps 1 Open Server Manager from Run type – ServerManager.msc

- Or - Press StartMenu click Server Manager

- Or - Open MMC and Add Remove Snap-in and Add server manager

- Or – Right Click on My Computer then click Manage

Steps 2 – Expend server name and Click Features

Steps 3 – Click Add features (Right Top)Steps 4 – Scroll and Check on Windows Server Backup and Command-line tools in Windows Server backup Features

Steps 4 – Scroll and Check on Windows Server Backup and Command-line tools in Windows Server backup Features


Steps 5 – Click Next and Then Click Install

After installation of windows backup features, I need to take backup of Active directory.

For backup of active directory I have to backup of System state in server 2008 from the windows Server backup command Line tools.

System State Backup From Command-Line Utility.

Steps 6 – Open command prompt by Typing CMD on Run

Steps 7 – Type “wbadmin start systemstatebackup -backuptarget:F:\BACKUP”

   Where f:\BACKUP is your backup destination path and you can choose a different one.

Steps 8 – Now press Y for Start the system state backup.


Steps 9 – When backup has been done you will be see the summary of backup and Log path example –

Summary of backup:


Backup of system state completeed successfully [3/10/2013 11:30 AM]

Log of files successfully backed up

'C:\Windows\Logs\WindowsServerBackup\SystemStateBackup 1/10/2013 02-48-18.log'

Restore Active Directory Backup

For Authoritative Restore of Active Directory follow these steps –

Steps 1 – Restart your Server and press F8 for advance option during startup

Steps 2 – Boot from Directory Services Restore mode.


Steps 3 – Login in to your server with Directory Service Restore Mode password which you have already created during Active Directory Installation.

Steps 4 – Now you have to check the version for restore the correct backup

Steps 5 – Open Command Prompt and Type wbadmin get versions and remember your version Identifier. Version will be according to you Backup date and time.

Steps 6 – We need to perform a non-authoritative restore of Active Directory by typing “wbadmin start systemstaterecovery -version:03/09/2013-15:30


Steps 7 – Press Y to confirm the non-authoritative restore

Steps 8 – You can mark the sysvol as authoritative by adding the –authsysvol switch to the end of the wbadmin command.

Keyword - System State Backup on Server 2008 by command line, Use the Wbadmin Backup Command Line in windows server 2008, Create Backups of the System State Using a Command Line, Recover the System State Using a Command Line, System State Backup on Windows 2008 R2, How to backup System State only in Windows Server 2008?, How to Run a System State Backup in Windows Server 2008 Server, Windows Server 2008: Creating and Maintaining System State, Backup system state using wbadmin Command, active directory backup in windows server 2008, active directory backup and restore in windows server 2008 r2, active directory backup and restore 2008 r2, Backup & Recover Active Directory in windows server 2008 via wbadmin tools, How to backup and restore Active Directory Users and Computers, Active Directory Backup | Active Directory Recovery | AD Recovery, Active directory restore using Server backup and wbadmin, A full backup and restore of Active Directory, Microsoft Exchange.

Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), previously known as Software Update Services (SUS), Microsoft Windows Server Update Services and hotfix, a new tool for managing and distributing critical Windows patches that resolve known security vulnerabilities and other stability issues in Microsoft Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows Server™ 2003 operating systems. WSUS downloads these updates from Microsoft Update website and then distributes them to computers on a network. WSUS runs on Windows Server operating system and is freeware.

The first version of WSUS was known as Software Update Services (SUS). It only delivered hotfixes and patches for Microsoft operating systems. SUS ran on a Windows Server operating system and downloaded updates for the specified versions of Windows from the remote Windows Update site, operated by Microsoft. The clients could then download updates from this internal server. Latest WSUS Available is version of WSUS 3.0 service pack 2.
Automatic Updates client
The Automatic Updates client can download packages from either the public Windows Update site or from a server running SUS. Before installing any packages that have been downloaded, SUS checks to confirm that the package has been signed by Microsoft. If the package is not correctly signed, it will not be installed.
The Automatic Update client also checks the CRC on each package after downloading it to confirm the package was not tampered with.
2.0 Release Candidate
March 22, 2005
2.0 RTW
June 6, 2005
2.0 Service Pack 1
May 31, 2006
Adds support for Windows Vista clients, additional client languages, and using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 as a database backend, as well as performance improvements with the web-based user interface
3.0 beta 2
August 14, 2006
MMC based UI and loads of new features
3.0 Release Candidate
February 12, 2007
3.0 RTW
April 30, 2007
WSUS 3.0 and WSUS Client 3.0 were made available via WSUS on 22 May 2007
3.0 Service Pack 1 Release Candidate
November 1, 2007
3.0 Service Pack 1 RTW
February 7, 2008
3.0 Service Pack 2 RTW
August 25, 2009

WSUS Version 3.0 SP 2


Minimum OS and Application Requirements
Supporting Operating System: Windows 7, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, Windows XP Service Pack 3
  • Microsoft Word or Word Viewer
  • Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 or later versions
  • The Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or later versions
  • Server component cannot be installed on Windows client OS
  • You must have one of the following supported databases installed:
  • Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express, Standard, or Enterprise EditionSQL Server 2005 SP2
  • Windows Internal Database
  • If one of the supported versions of SQL Server is not installed, the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard will install Windows Internal Database.
  • Microsoft Management Console 3.0
  • Microsoft Report Viewer Redistributable 2008
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 requires WSUS 3.0 SP2. If you use Windows Server 2008 R2, then you should install WSUS 3.0 SP2. Do not install WSUS 3.0 SP1 on Windows Server 2008 R2.
  • WSUS 3.0 SP2 is not supported for use with Terminal Services on the front-end server in a remote SQL configuration
Integration with Windows Server® 2008 R2
  • Support for the Branch Cache feature on Windows Server 2008 R2
  • Support for Windows 7 clients
WSUS Feature Improvements
Auto-Approval Rules
  • Auto-approval rules now include the ability to specify the approval deadline date and time for all computers or specific computer groups.
Update Files and Languages
  • Improved handling of language selection for downstream servers includes a new warning dialog that appears when you decide to download updates only for specified languages.
Easy Upgrade
  • WSUS 3.0 SP2 can be installed as an in-place upgrade from earlier versions of WSUS and will preserve all of your settings and approvals. The user interface is compatible between WSUS 3.0 SP1 and SP2 on the client and the server.
  • New Update and Computer Status reports provide the ability to filter on updates approved for installation. You can run these reports from the WSUS console or use the API to incorporate this functionality into your own reports.
Software Updates
  • Stability and reliability fixes for the WSUS server, such as support for IPV6 addresses greater than 40 characters.
  • The approval dialog now sorts computer groups alphabetically by group name.
  • Computer status report sorting icons are now functional in x64 environments.
  • A new release of Windows Update Agent is included with WSUS 3.0 SP2 that provides improvements and fixes, such as support for APIs called by non-local system callers in a non-interactive session


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Additional information


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