IIS

What’s new and latest features in Microsoft IIS 8.5

Source - http://blogs.msdn.com, www.iis.net

 

IIS 8.5 is available by default only With the release of the new version of Windows Server 2012 R2, And New updates of Windows 8.1.

In this version of IIS 8.5 microsoft has added some new features which is below.

  • Manageability - Logging Enhancements

  • Manageability - ETW Events

  • Scalability - Dynamic site activation

  • Scalability - Idle Worker Process Page-out

 

Manageability - Logging Enhancements

 

Manageability - ETW Events (Event Tracing for Windows)

 

Scalability - Dynamic site activation

When you are hosting a lot of web sites (100s) in IIS version 6/7/7.5, you may have experienced some noticable time when loading the IIS configuration file.  When WAS runs it will load the configuration for all web sites hosted on the server.  In IIS 8.5 a new more optimized process has been implemented to improve the performance of this activity.


Scalability - Idle Worker Process Page-out

When the worker process is requested for the first time the binaries need to be compiled, and for some web applications this can take some time.  This compilation is often referred to as warming-up or starting-up the application.  If you choose to Suspend the worker process when it times-out instead of terminating it, you can avoid this warm-up process from happening in this context.

 

Internet Information Services 7 Administrations Complete Syllabus According Microsoft

 

 

Course Number: IIS-102

Duration: 2 days

Software Needed

  • 7.0 require Windows Server 2008 R1 or Windows Vista Business or Ultimate. IIS 7.5 requires Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows 7 Business, Enterprise, or Ultimate.

  • At least 2GB RAM

IIS 7 Training Objective

To learn how to install, configure, performance tune, troubleshoot, and cluster IIS 7

IIS 7 Training Outline

  • Introduction and IIS 7 Architecture

  • Integrated Pipeline Mode

  • Extensibility and Modularity

  • IIS Manager Extensibility

  • Meta base (gone!)

  • WAS and the Worker Process

  • Installing IIS 7

    • Clean Installation

    • Upgrade Installation

    • Adding Features to an Existing Installation

    • Automated Installation and Configuration

    • Server Core Command-Line Installation

    • Hosting Service Recommendations

  • Administration

    • IIS Manager

    • IIS Manager Extensibility

    • Configuration Settings (walking tour)

    • Using the Configuration Editor (add-on for IIS 7.0; standard in IIS 7.5)

    • Command-Line Management

    • Command-Line Management with PowerShell

      • Overview of PowerShell

      • Getting a list of the IIS 7/7.5 PowerShell cmdlets

      • New cmdlets in IIS 7.5

      • Hands-on work with some of the most useful cmdlets

  • Fundamentals of Web Site Management

    • Web Sites, Applications, and Virtual Directories

    • Creating a New Web Site

    • Configuring Logging

    • Configuring Host Headers

    • Administering Applications

    • Administering Virtual Directories

    • Configuring Compression

    • Configuring MIME Settings

    • Basic Administrative Tasks

  • Web Application Administration [only sections relevant to your environment would be covered]

    • ASP

    • ASP.NET

    • ISAPI

    • CGI

    • Fast CGI (including the Fast CGI interface available as an add-on in IIS 7.0 or standard in IIS 7.5)

  • Web Application Pool Administration

    • Understanding Web Application Pools

    • Virtual Directories versus Applications

    • Understanding the w3wp.exe Process

    • Advanced Settings

    • Application Pool Users

Application Pool Security

  • Delegating Remote Administration

    • Introducing the Main Characters

    • IIS 7 Manager Remote Access

    • Delegation Settings

  • Securing IIS 7

    • Types of Attacks

    • Securing the Server

    • Securing IIS 7

    • Using the Request Filter (configuration CGUI is an add-on in IIS 7.0; standard in IIS 7.5)

    • Rewriting URLs with the Rewrite module (available as an add-on from iis.net)

  • Authentication and Authorization

    • Authentication Types

    • Configuring the Authentication Types in Use in Your Organization

    • Understanding IIS 7 User Accounts

  • SSL and TLS

    • Securing a Web Site with TLS

    • Requiring SSL or TLS

    • Client Certificates

  • Monitoring and Performance Tuning

    • How to Monitor IIS 7

    • Performance Tuning Techniques

  • Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

    • Common Issues

    • Runtime Status and Control API

    • IIS 7 Error Pages

    • Failed Request Tracing

    • Error Logging

    • Access Logging

    • ASP.NET Tracing

    • Troubleshooting Strategies

    • Using Additional IIS 7 Built-In Tools

    • Using Installable IIS 7 tools

  • Configuring and Load Balancing Web Farms

    • IIS 7 and Web Farms

    • Content Configuration

    • Content Replication

    • Complete Redundancy

    • Load Balancing

    • Other Considerations

Conclusion

FTP - File Transfer Protocol

Port Number - 21
RFC - RFC 959 (October 1985)
OSI Model - Application Layer

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet or Local Area network. FTP is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. TCP/IP is the basic protocol that runs the whole Internet. There are a number of smaller protocols that run on top of TCP/IP, such as email, HTTP, and Telnet. FTP is one of these. FTP operates on the application layer of the OSI model, and is used to transfer files using TCP/IP.

 

History

The first FTP client applications were interactive command-line tools, implementing standard commands and syntax. Graphical user interface clients have since been developed for many of the popular desktop operating systems in use today. The original specification for the File Transfer Protocol was written by Abhay Bhushan and published as RFC 114 on 16 April 1971, before TCP and IP even existed. It was later replaced by RFC 765 (June 1980) and RFC 959 (October 1985), the current specification.
 
How does Work
FTP works on the principal of a client/server. FTP works very similarly to the way web pages work. Each file on an FTP server is given an address (URL) so that other computers connected to the internet can find it. Users can then either use an FTP client or most web browsers to either download or upload files to the server.
         When a user wishes to engage in File transfer, FTP sets up a TCP connection to the target system for the exchange of control messages. These allow used ID and password to be transmitted and allow the user to specify the file and file action desired. Once file transfer is approved, a second TCP connection is set up for data transfer.
 
FTP and TFTP
Windows NT supports both file transfer protocol (FTP) and trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) under its implementation of TCP/IP. Both of these protocols can be used for transferring files across the Internet. The differences between the two protocols are explained below:
  • FTP is a complete, session-oriented, general purpose file transfer protocol. TFTP is used as a bare-bones special purpose file transfer protocol.
  • FTP can be used interactively. TFTP allows only unidirectional transfer of files.
  • FTP depends on TCP, is connection oriented, and provides reliable control. TFTP depends on UDP, requires less overhead, and provides virtually no control.
  • FTP provides user authentication. TFTP does not.
  • FTP uses well-known TCP port numbers: 20 for data and 21 for connection dialog. TFTP uses UDP port number 69 for its file transfer activity.
The Windows NT FTP server service does not support TFTP because TFTP does not support authentication.
Windows 95 and TCP/IP-32 for Windows for Workgroups do not include a TFTP client program.
 
Passive and active FTP
Internet Information Server (IIS) with File Transmission Protocol (FTP) installed supports the following connection types:
  • Active-mode FTP
  • Passive-mode FTP
The IIS-based FTP service (MSFTPSVC) supports both active and passive mode connections, depending on the method that is specified by the client. The FTP protocol uses a minimum of two connections during a session: a half-duplex connection for control, and a full-duplex connection for data transfer. By default, TCP port 21 is used on the server for the control connection.
Active Mode FTP Connection
Active-mode FTP is sometimes referred to as "client-managed" because the client sends a PORT command to the server (over the control connection) that requests the server to establish a data connection from TCP Port 20 on the server, to the client, using the TCP port that is specified by the PORT command.
[Note: -The FTP client sends the PORT command to the FTP server in the following format:
PORT 192,168,0,3,19,243
where the first four comma-separated values correspond to the octets of the client's IP address, and the fifth and sixth values are the high- and low-order bits of the 16-bit port number.]
Passive-mode FTP Connections
Passive-mode FTP is sometimes referred to as "server-managed", because after the client issues a PASV command, the server responds to that PASV instruction with one of its ephemeral ports that will be used as the server-side port of the data connection. After a data connection command is issued by the client, the server connects to the client using the port immediately.
 
Anonymous FTP
A host that provides an FTP service may additionally provide anonymous FTP access. Users typically log into the service with an 'anonymous' account when prompted for user name. Although users are commonly asked to send their email address in lieu of a password, no verification is actually performed on the supplied data. Many FTP hosts whose purpose is to provide software updates will provide anonymous logins. Examples of anonymous FTP servers can be found here. Some universities, government agencies, companies, and private individuals have set up public archives that you may access via FTP, usually in a directory named pub for anonymous FTP.

You can use IIS to perform any of the following browser redirection procedures:

  • Redirect requests to another folder or Web site.
  • Redirect requests to a file.
  • Redirect requests to a network share.
  • Redirect requests to a program.
 
Redirection on IIS 6.0 (Windows XP or Windows Server 2003)
Login Server with Administrator Account
  • Open IIS Manager,
  • Click start menu\All Programs\Administrative Tools\Inter Information Service (IIS) Manager -Or-
  • Run \ Type - "inetmgr" (When you have installed IIS successfully
  • Expend Server name and then Website folder
  • Right click on website which you want to redirect and click properties

 

  • Go to Home Directory Tab
  • Here you can set your site directory and for redirection click "A redirection to a URL"
  • Type the redirected URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

 

[Note: - How to Redirect a URL to application clicks here and see on

 
Configure Redirection on IIS 7.0 (Windows Server 2008) and IIS 7.5 (Windows 7)
HTTP Redirection is not available on the default installation of IIS 7 and IIS 7.5.
 
HTTP Redirection installation on IIS 7 (Windows Server 2008 or 2008 R2)
1. Open Server Manager which available on administrative tool (Start Menu\Administrative tools)
2. In the Server Manager Hierarchy pane, expand Roles, and then click Web Server (IIS).
3. In the Web Server (IIS) pane, scroll to the Role Services section, and then click Add Role Services.
4. On the Select Role Services page of the Add Role Services Wizard, expand Common Http Features, select HTTP Redirection, and then click Next
 
5. On the Confirm Installation Selections page, click Install.
6. On the Results page, click Close.
 
HTTP Redirection installation on IIS 7.5 (Windows Vista and Windows 7)
1. On the taskbar, click Start, and then click Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, click Programs and Features, and then click Turn Windows Features on or off.
3. Expand Internet Information Services, then World Wide Web Services, then Common Http Features.
4. Select HTTP Redirection, and then click OK.
 
Configure Redirection for folder, and website on IIS 7.0 and IIS 7.5
1. Open Internet Information Services (IISManager:
Administrative tools\ Internet Information Services (IISManager or Run Type "inetmgr"
2. In the Connections pane, expand the server name, expand Sites, and then navigate to the Web site or application
3. In the Home pane, double-click HTTP Redirect.
 
4. In the HTTP Redirect page, check the box to "redirect requests and enter the destination"
 
 
You can optionally specify any of the following options:
1. Configure the redirection destination to be the exact destination as entered.
2. Configure the redirection destination to be limited to the destination URL's root folder, not subfolders.
3. Configure the HTTP status code, which can be one of these three options:
  • 301 Permanent
  • 302 Found
  • 307 Temporary
Note: IIS 7 will respectively return the following actual HTTP response statuses for each of the above options:
  • HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
  • HTTP/1.1 302 Redirect
  • HTTP/1.1 307 Redirect
5. When you have finished all the above changes, click Apply in the Tasks pane.

What is IIS?

Internet Information Services (IIS) is a web server application and set of feature extension modules created by Microsoft for use with Microsoft Windows. It is the most used web server after Apache HTTP Server. Latest edition is IIS-7.5 it supports HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SMTP and NNTP. It is an integral part of Windows Server family of products, as well as certain editions of Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. IIS is not turned on by default when Windows is installed.
-Or-
An IIS (Internet Information Server) application is a Visual Basic application that lives on a Web server and responds to requests from the browser. An IIS application uses HTML to present its user interface and uses compiled Visual Basic code to process requests and respond to events in the browser.
 
History
The first Microsoft web server was a research project at European Microsoft Windows NT Academic Centre (EMWAC), part of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, and was distributed as freeware. However since the EMWAC server was unable to scale sufficiently to handle the volume of traffic going to microsoft.com, Microsoft was forced to develop its own webserver.
  • IIS 7.0 was a complete redesign and rewrite of IIS, which shipped with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.
  • IIS 7.0 on Vista does not limit the number of allowed connections as IIS on XP.
  • The current shipping version of IIS is IIS 7.5, included in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.
  • IIS 7.5 improved WebDAV and FTP modules as well as command line administration in PowerShell. It also introduced Best Practices Analyzer tool and process isolation for application pools
 
Versions
IIS Version
Windows Operating System
IIS 1.0
Windows NT 3.51 available as a free add-on
IIS 2.0
Windows NT 4.0
IIS 3.0
Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 2
IIS 4.0
Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack
IIS 5.0
Windows 2000
IIS 5.1
Windows XP Professional and Windows XP Media Center Edition (requires retail CD)
IIS 6.0
Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
IIS 7.0
Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista (Home Premium, Business, Enterprise and Ultimate editions)
IIS 7.5
Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 (Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate editions)

Features Compare between IIS 6.0 and IIS 7.5

IIS 6.0 and higher support the following authentication mechanisms: -

  • Anonymous authentication
  • Basic access authentication
  • Digest access authentication
  • Integrated Windows Authentication
  • UNC authentication
  • .NET Passport Authentication (Removed in Windows Server 2008 and IIS 7.0)
  • Certificate authentication
IIS 7.5 includes the following additional or enhanced security features: -
  • Client Certificate Mapping
  • IP Security
  • Request Filtering
  • URL Authorization
Applocation Name
Description
IIS Windows Process Activation Service (WAS)
Windows Process Activation Service (WAS) manages application pool configuration and the creation and lifetime of worker processes for HTTP and other protocols. The World Wide Web Publishing Service (W3SVC) and other services depend on WAS.
 
 
 
IIS Application Pool
An Internet Information Services (IIS) application pool is a grouping of URLs that is routed to one or more worker processes. Because application pools define a set of Web applications that share one or more worker processes, they provide a convenient way to administer a set of Web sites and applications and their corresponding worker processes. Process boundaries separate each worker process; therefore, a Web site or application in one application pool will not be affected by application problems in other application pools. Application pools significantly increase both the reliability and manageability of a Web infrastructure.
 
IIS Worker Process
An Internet Information Services (IIS) worker process is a windows process (w3wp.exe) which runs Web applications, and is responsible for handling requests sent to a Web Server for a specific application pool.
 
IIS Protocol Adapter
An Internet Information Services (IIS) protocol adapter is a Windows service that receives messages on a specific network protocol and communicates with The Windows Process Activation Service (WAS) to route incoming messages to the correct worker process.
IIS FTP Service
The Internet Information Services (IIS) FTP Service enables the Web server to be a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server. If this service is stopped, the server cannot function as an FTP server.
IIS Web Management Service (WMSvc)
The Internet Information Services (IIS) Web Management Service (WMSvc) enables remote and delegated management of a Web server and its Web sites and applications.
IIS Application Host Helper Service (AppHostSvc)
The Internet Information Services (IIS) ApplicationHost Helper Service (AppHostSvc) enables IIS configuration history and application pool SID (security identifier) mapping. It enables the configuration history functionality by saving the ApplicationHost.config file to separate configuration history subdirectories at set intervals.
IISADMIN Service
The Internet Information Services (IIS) IISAdmin service hosts the IIS 6.0 configuration compatibility component (metabase). The metabase is required to run IIS 6.0 administrative scripts, SMTP, and FTP.
 
IIS Hosted Web Core
The Internet Information Services (IIS) Hosted Web Core (HWC) is a low-level component that is used to run Web applications without the Windows Process Activation Service (WAS) or the built-in IIS configuration store (ApplicationHost.config).
IIS World Wide Web Publishing Service (W3SVC)
The Internet Information Services (IIS) World Wide Web Publishing Service (W3SVC), sometimes referred to as the WWW Service, manages the HTTP protocol and HTTP performance counters.
 
IIS Web Site
An Internet Information Services (IIS) Web site is a unique collection of Web pages and Web applications that is hosted on an IIS Web server. Web sites have bindings that consist of a port number, an IP address, and an optional host name or names.
Active Server Pages (ASP)
Active Server Pages (ASP) enables Web servers to dynamically generate Web pages and create interactive Web applications by using server-side scripting technology

 

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